Scientific literature

The connection between progesterone concentration and the ovulation cycle has been established since the 1970s. As explained in our infographic here, there have been substantial developments in our knowledge since then. Below we have collated a selection of scientific literature which explores the monitoring of progesterone further.


Mottram, T. (2016) Animal board invited review: precision livestock farming for dairy cows with a focus on oestrus detection. Animal, 10(10): 1575-84. (doi: 10.1017/S1751731115002517)

Ingenhoff, L., Hall, E., House, J.K (2016) Evaluation of a cow-side milk progesterone assay and assessment of the positive predictive value of oestrus diagnosis by dairy farmers in New South WalesAustralian Veterinary Journal,  94(12): 445-51. (doi: 10.1111/avj.12532)

Smith, R. F., Oultram, J., Dobson, H. (2014) Herd monitoring to optimise fertility in the dairy cow: making the most of herd records, metabolic profiling and ultrasonography (research into practice)Animal, 8(S1): 185-98. (doi: 10.1017/S1751731114000597)

Claycombe, R. W., Delwicheb M. J. (1998) Biosensor for on-line measurement of bovine progesterone during milkingBiosensors and Bioelectrionics, 13(11): 1173-1180. (

Bulman, D.C, Lamming, G. E. (1978) Milk progesterone levels in relation to conception, repeat breeding and factors influencing acyclicity in dairy cowsJournal of Reproductive Fertility, 54: 447-458. (doi: 10.1530/jrf.0.0540447)


For more information and research papers, follow our founder Professor Toby Mottram on Research Gate.