Scientific literature 

Research into the relationship between milk progesterone concentration and the oestrous cycle first began in the early 1970s. Since then there has been substantial developments in the field. There have also been advancements in sensor development, allowing the accurate measurement of milk progesterone concentration out of the laboratory.

Below we have collated a selection of the key pieces of scientific research on progesterone monitoring in dairy cows. This is not a comprehensive list but provides a basis to explore the topic further.

  • Mottram, T. (2016) Animal board invited review: precision livestock farming for dairy cows with a focus on oestrus detection. Animal, 10(10): 1575-84. (doi: 10.1017/S1751731115002517)
  • Ingenhoff, L., Hall, E., House, J.K (2016) Evaluation of a cow-side milk progesterone assay and assessment of the positive predictive value of oestrus diagnosis by dairy farmers in New South Wales. Australian Veterinary Journal,  94(12): 445-51. (doi: 10.1111/avj.12532)
  • Smith, R. F., Oultram, J., Dobson, H. (2014) Herd monitoring to optimise fertility in the dairy cow: making the most of herd records, metabolic profiling and ultrasonography (research into practice). Animal, 8(S1): 185-98. (doi: 10.1017/S1751731114000597)
  • Claycombe, R. W., Delwicheb M. J. (1998) Biosensor for on-line measurement of bovine progesterone during milking. Biosensors and Bioelectrionics, 13(11): 1173-1180. (
  • Bulman, D.C, Lamming, G. E. (1978) Milk progesterone levels in relation to conception, repeat breeding and factors influencing acyclicity in dairy cows. Journal of Reproductive Fertility, 54: 447-458. (doi:10.1530/jrf.0.0540447) 
For more information and research papers, follow our founder Professor Toby Mottram on Research Gate.